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Oxford, others went to the smaller universities of France. Pope
Gregory IX intervened in the interests of the masters, and in
1231 issued the BullParensScientiarum, which has been called the
Magna Charta of the university. By this Bull, the right of the
masters to enforce their views by the suspension of lectures was
defined and recognized, and full sanction was given them to make
statutes and compel their own members to respect them. At the
same time the judicial powers of the chancellor were still further
restricted. His jurisdiction in criminal cases was taken away
altogether, and his civil and spiritual jurisdiction considerably

About the middle of the century came a new danger to the
freedom of the university with the growing power of the two great
orders of Mendicant Friars: the Dominicans or Black Friars,
and the Franciscans or Grey Friars. The Friars wished their
members to be allowed to become teachers of theology without
coming under the statutes to which all other masters were subject.
With the help of Pope Alexander IV, who went contrary to the
policy of his predecessors, they succeeded in establishing their
position in spite of a desperate resistance, only to lose most of the
advantages of their victory when a new pope appeared.

After a time of comparative peace, the old controversy as to the
chancellor's powers revived once more in the second last decade
of the century under the regime of an aggressive chancellor. But
the masters were now too strong for the chancellor, and the final
result was the reduction of his privileges to the ceremonial right
of conferring licence. From this time till the close of the Middle
Ages the masters were supreme. The university had established
itself in a position of unassailable strength in its relations with the
civil and religious authorities. The only limit to its powers was
its subordination to the pope under which it had voluntarily come
in its struggle with the local church. And here again, as in the
case of Bologna, an excess of freedom brought its nemesis when
the time of reaction came in the Sixteenth Century. Over-
confident of itself, the university ventured to stand up against the
King of France, and found that its power was gone.

The constitutional effects of the century of struggle were very
great. At the beginning of the century there were only groups of
masters and students, loosely combined according to faculty, but
without any common ties beyond what was implied in the fact